The Islamization of European Anti-Semitism
On Thursday, September 7, 2006, as first reported by the Times of London this past Saturday (9/2/06), an All—Party Parliamentary Enquiry into Antisemitism is expected to issue its finding that anti—Jewish violence has become endemic in Britain, both on the streets and university campuses. A major surge of attacks has accompanied—and followed—the recent conflict between Hezb'allah and Israel. According to the Times,
'The report will call for urgent action from the Government, the police and educational establishments.'
However, in referring to the preponderance of the actual attackers, the Times provided only this vague allusion, 'Muslims are over—represented,' seemingly oblivious to its own earlier poll whose results were published on February 7, 2006. These data revealed the twisted justification for such violent bigotry: 37 per cent of British Muslims believe the Jewish community in Britain is a legitimate target 'as part of the ongoing struggle for 'justice' in the Middle East.'
A subsequent (9/5/06) report on the Parliamentary Enquiry in the Jerusalem Post was more forthcoming, and stated explicitly that 'Islamic extremists' were responsible for 'inciting hatred towards Jews'. As the Jerusalem Post also noted, the Parliamentary Enquiry's results are consistent with data recently published in The Journal of Conflict Resolution by Yale University biostatistician Dr. Edward H. Kaplan, and Dr. Charles A. Small of the Yale Institute for the Study of Global Antisemitism.
Drs. Kaplan and Small examined the views of 5004 Europeans, roughly 500 individuals sampled from each of 10 European Union countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). The authors' main publicized results confirmed their (rather commonsensical) a priori hypothesis: anti—Israel sentiments strongly and independently predicted the likelihood that an individual was anti—Semitic in a graded manner, i.e., the more anti—Israel (on a scale of zero to 4), the more a person was likely to be anti—Semitic.
But perhaps an even more striking finding in light of the burgeoning Jew hatred now evident in Europe's Muslim communities, has until now received much less attention. In a controlled comparison to European Christians (as the 'referent' group), European Muslims were nearly eightfold (i.e., 800%) more likely to be overtly anti—Semitic. Furthermore, in light of the Pew Global Attitudes Project data on Muslim attitudes toward Jews in Islamic countries, the Yale study likely underestimated the extent of anti—Semitism amongst Europe's Muslim communities. Had more poorly educated, less acclimated European Muslims been sampled, the results would probably have been even worse. Pew's survey previously indicated,
In the Muslim world, attitudes toward Jews remain starkly negative, including virtually unanimous unfavorable ratings of 98% in Jordan and 97% in Egypt. Muslims living in Western countries have a more moderate view of Jews — still more negative than positive, but not nearly by the lopsided margins that prevail in Muslim countries.
What is to account for the clear 'Islamization' of European Antisemitism? Might this phenomenon be related to the much—maligned descriptive term 'Eurabia'? Indeed, the use of the term 'Eurabia,' as noted by Bat Ye'or in her seminal 2005 study, 'Eurabia—The Euro—Arab Axis', was first introduced, triumphally, in the mid—1970s, as the title of a journal produced by the Association for Franco—Arab Solidarity, and published in Geneva, Paris, and London.
The articles and editorials in this publication called for common Euro—Arab positions, at every level — social, economic, and commercial — and were contingent upon the fundamental political condition of European support for the Arab (and non—Arab) Muslim umma's jihad against Israel. These concrete proposals were not the musings of isolated theorists — they in fact represented policy decisions conceived in conjunction with, and actualized by, European state leaders, their ministers of foreign affairs, and European Parliamentarians.