Madison's Republic

James Madison is not directly to blame for America's current situation. The Marxists (sec progs) are. Rather, he was responsible for making unfortunate modifications to Montesquieu's philosophy, which was -- although Spirit of the Laws was published in 1748 -- really just an explication of 17th century British political philosophy, applied to a new form of republicanism. In short, Montesquieu articulated a 17th century republicanism. Madison innovated an 18th century republicanism. (Marxism was a 19th century beast.) Republicanism had been mostly dormant since its primordial versions failed in the ancient Greco-Roman world. Mostly, the world had given up on self-rule of either the direct form -- democracy -- or the indirect form -- republicanism -- deeming that it simply requires too much virtue out of its "rulers," the people, to be realistic. One of the few items upon which all Federalists, all Antifederalists, and Montesquieu himself agreed was that representative government...(Read Full Article)